Book 1

1.1

1.1.1
Lion
1.1.2
Natura leonis j a. Ðe leun stant on hille, and he man hunten here, Oðer ðurg his nese smel, Smake ðat he negge, Bi wilc weie so he wile To dele niðer wenden, Alle hise fet steppes After him he filleð, Drageð dust wið his stert ðer he steppeð, Oðer dust oðer deu, ðat he ne cunne is finden, driueð dun to his den ðar he him bergen wille.
1.1.3
ij a. An oðer kinde he haueð, wanne he is ikindled Stille lið ðe leun, ne stireð he nout of slepe Til ðe sunne haueð sinen ðries him abuten, ðanne reiseð his fader him mit te rem ðat he makeð.
1.1.4
iij a. Ðe ðridde lage haueð ðe leun, ðanne he lieð to slepen Sal he neure luken ðe lides of hise egen.
1.1.5
Significacio prime nature. Welle heg is tat hil, ðat is heuen riche, vre louerd is te leun, ðe liueð ðer abuuen; wu ðo him likede to ligten her on erðe, Migte neure diuel witen, ðog he be derne hunte, hu he dun come, Ne wu he dennede him in ðat defte meiden, Marie bi name, ðe him bar to manne frame.
1.1.6
ij a et iij a. Ðo ure drigten ded was, and doluen, also his wille was, In a ston stille he lai til it kam ðe dridde dai, His fader him filstnede swo ðat he ros fro dede ðo, vs to lif holden, wakeð so his wille is, So hirde for his folde; He is hirde, we ben sep; Silden he us wille, If we heren to his word ðat we ne gon nowor wille,

1.2

1.2.1
THE EAGLE.
1.2.2
Natura aquile. KIðen i wille ðe ernes kinde, Also ic it o boke rede, wu he neweð his guðhede, hu he cumeð ut of elde, Siðen hise limes arn unwelde, Siðen his bec is al to-wrong, Siðen his fligt is al unstrong, and his egen dimme; Hereð wu he neweð him. A welle he sekeð ðat springeð ai boðe bi nigt and bi dai, ðer-ouer he flegeð, and up he teð, til ðat he ðe heuene seð, ðurg skies sexe and seuene til he cumeð to heuene; So rigt so he cunne he houeð in ðe sunne; ðe sunne swideð al his fligt, and oc it makeð his egen brigt, Hise feðres fallen for ðe hete, and he dun mide to ðe wete Falleð in ðat welle grund, ðer he wurdeð heil and sund, and cumeð ut al newe, Ne were his bec untrewe. His bec is get biforn wrong, ðog hise limes senden strong, Ne maig he tilen him non fode him self to none gode, ðanne goð he to a ston, and he billeð ðer-on, Billeð til his bec biforn haueð ðe wrengðe forloren, Siðen wið his rigte bile takeð mete ðat he wile.
1.2.3
Significacio. Al is man so is tis ern, wulde ge nu listen, MS listlen. Old in hise sinnes dern, Or he bicumeð cristen; and tus he neweð him ðis man, ðanne he nimeð to kirke, Or he it biðenken can, hise egen weren mirke; Forsaket ðore satanas, and ilk sinful dede; Takeð him to ihesu crist, for he sal ben his mede; Leueð on ure loue[r]d crist, and lereð prestes lore; Of hise egen wereð ðe mist, wiles he dreccheð ðore. his hope is al to gode-ward, and of his luue he lereð, ðat is te sunne sikerlike, ðus his sigte he beteð; Naked falleð in ðe funt-fat, and cumeð ut al newe, buten a litel; wat is tat? his muð is get untrewe; his muð is get wel unkuð wið pater noster and crede; Fare he norð, er fare he suð, leren he sal his nede; bidden bone to gode, and tus his muð rigten; tilen him so ðe sowles fode, ðurg grace off ure drigtin.

1.3

1.3.1
THE SERPENT.
1.3.2
Natura serpentis. j a. AN wirm is o werlde, wel man it knoweð, Neddre is te name: ðus he him neweð, ðanne he is forbroken and forbroiden, and in his elde al forwurden. Fasteð til his fel him slakeð, ten daies fulle, ðat he is lene and mainles and iuele mai gangen; he crepeð cripelande forð, his craft he ðus kiðeð, Sekeð a ston ðat a ðirl is on, Narwe, buten he nedeð him, Nimeð vnneðes ðurg, for his fel he ðer leteð; his fles forð crepeð, walkeð to ðe water-ward, wile ðanne drinken. Oc he speweð or al ðe uenim ðat in his brest is bred sro his birde time, drinkeð siðen inog, and tus he him neweð.
1.3.3
ij a. Ðanne ðe neddre is of his hid naked, and bare of his brest atter, If he naked man se ne wile he him nogt neggen, oc he fleð fro him als he fro fir sulde. If he cloðed man se, cof he waxeð, For up he rigteð him redi to deren, to deren er to ded maken, if he it muge forðen. wat if ðe man war wurðe, and weren him cunne, figteð wið ðis wirm and f[a]reð on him figtande; ðis neddre siðen he nede sal, makeð seld of his bodi, and sildeð his heued; litel him is of hise limes, bute he lif holde.
1.3.4
[ Significacio. ] Knov cristene man wat tu crist higtest Atte kirke dure, ðar ðu cristned were: ðu higtes to leuen on him, and hise lages luuien, to helden wit herte ðe bodes of holi k[i]rke. If ðu hauest is broken, Al ðu forbreðes, forwurðes and forgelues, Eche lif to wolden, Elded art fro eche blis, So ðis wirm o werld is; Newe ðe fordi so ðe neddre doð; It is te ned. Feste ðe of stedefastnesse, and ful of ðewes; and help ðe poure men ðe gangen abuten. Ne deme ðe nog[t] wurdi, ðat tu dure loken up to ðe heueneward; Oc walke wið ðe erðe mildelike among men; no mod ðu ne cune, mod ne mannes vncost; oc swic of sineginge; and bote bid tu ðe ai, boðe bi nigt and bi dai, ðat tu milce mote hauen of ðine misdedes. ðis lif bitokneð ðe sti ðat te neddre gangeð bi, and tis is ðe ðirl of ðe ston ðat tu salt ðurg gon. Let ðin filðe fro ðe, so ðe wirm his fel doð; Go ðu ðan to godes hus ðe godspel to heren, ðat is soule drink, sinnes quenching. Oc or sei ðu in scrifte to ðe prest sinnes tine, feg ðe ðus of ði brest filde, and feste ðe forðward fast at tin herte, ðat tu firmest higtes. ðus art tu ging and newe; forðward be ðu trewe. Nedeð ðe ðe deuel nogt, for he ne mai ðe deren nogt; oc he fleð fro ðe so neddre fro de nakede. On ðe cloðede ðe neddre is cof, and te deuel cliuer on sinnes; Ai ðe sinfule bisetten he wile, and wið al mankin he haueð nið and win; wat if he leue haue of ure heuen louerd for to deren us, So he ure eldere or dede; do we ðe bodi in ðe bale, and bergen ðe soule, ðat is ure heued geuelic, helde we it wurðlic.

1.4

1.4.1
Ant
1.4.2
Natura formice. Ðe mire is magti, mikel ge swinkeð In sumer and in softe weder, So we ofte sen hauen; In ðe heruest hardilike gangeð, and renneð rapelike, and resteð hire seldum, and fecheð hire fode ðer ge it mai finden, gaddreð ilkines sed boðen of wude and of wed, Of corn and of gres, ðat ire to hauen es, haleð to hire hole, ðat siðen hire helpeð ðar ge wile ben winter agen; caue ge haueð to crepen in, ðat winter hire ne derie; Mete in hire hule ðat ðat ge muge biliuen. ðus ge tileð ðar, wiles ge time haueð, so it her telleð; oc finde ge ðe wete, corn ðat hire qwemeð, Al ge forleteð ðis oðer seð ðat ic er seide; Ne bit ge nowt de barlic beren abuten; oc suneð it and sakeð forð, so it same were. get is wunder of ðis wirm more ðanne man weneð, ðe corn ðat ge to caue bereð al get bit otwinne, ðat it ne forwurðe ne waxe hire fro, er ge it eten wille.
1.4.3
Significacio. Ðe mire muneð us mete to tilen, Long liuenoðe, ðis little wile ðe we on ðis werld wunen: for ðanne we of wenden, ðanne is ure winter; we sulen hunger hauen and harde sures, buten we ben war here. do we forði so doð ðis der, ðanne be we derue On ðat dai ðat dom sal ben, ðat it ne us harde rewe: Seke we ure liues fod, ðat we ben siker dere, So ðis wirm in winter is, ðan ge ne tileð nummore. ðe mire suneð ðe barlic, ðanne ge fint te wete; ðe olde lage we ogen to sunen, ðe newe we hauen moten. ðe corn ðat ge to caue bereð, all ge it bit otwinne, ðe lage us lereð to don god, and forbedeð us sinne. It bet MS ben . us erðliche MS ebriche. bodes, and bekued euelike; It fet ðe licham and te gost oc nowt o geuelike; vre louerd crist it leue us ðat his lage us fede, nu and o domesdei, and tanne we hauen nede.

1.5

1.5.1
Hart
1.5.2
Natura cerui. Ðe hert haueð kindes two, and forbisnes oc al so; ðus it is on boke set, ðat man clepeð fisiologet. He drageð ðe neddre of de ston ðurg his nese up on-on, of ðe stoc er of ðe ston, for it wile ðerunder gon; and sweleð it wel swiðe, ðerof him brinneð siðen of ðat attrie ðing, wiðinnen he haueð brenning: he lepeð ðanne wið mikel list, of swet water he haueð ðrist; he drinkeð water gredilike til he is ful wel sikerlike, Ne haueð ðat uenim non migt to deren him siðen non wigt. oc he werpeð er hise hornes in wude er in ðornes, and gingid him ðus ðis wilde der, So ge hauen nu lered her.
1.5.3
Significacio prima . Alle we atter dragen off ure eldere, ðe broken drigtinnes word ðurg ðe neddre; ðer-ðurg haueð mankin boðen nið and win, golsipe MS kolsipe. and giscing, giuernesse and wissing, pride and ouerwene; swilc atter i-mene. Ofte we brennen in mod, and wurðen so we weren wod; ðanne we ðus brennen bihoueð us to rennen to cristes quike welle, ðat we ne gon to helle; drinken his wissing, it quenchet ilc siniging; forwerpen pride euril[c] del, so hert doð hise hornes; gingen us tus to godeward, and gemen us siðen forðward.
1.5.4
Natura ij a. Ðe hertes hauen anoðer kinde, ðat us og alle to ben minde. Alle he arn off one mode; For if he fer fecchen fode, and he ouer water ten, wile non at nede oðer flen; Oc on swimmeð bi-forn, and alle ðe oðre folegen, weðer so he swimmeð er he wadeð: Is non at nede ðat oðer lateð, Oc leigeð his skinbon on oðres lendbon. gef him ðat biforn teð Bilimpes for to tirgen, Alle ðe oðre cumen mide, and helpen him for to her[t]ien, beren him of ðat water grund up to ðe lond al heil and sund, and forðen here nede: ðis wune he hauen hem bi-twen, ðog he an hundred to-giddre ben.
1.5.5
Significacio MS signisicacio. ij a. Ðe hertes costes we ogen to munen, Ne og ur non oðer to sunen, oc eurilc luuen oðer, also he were his broder, wurðen stedefast his wine, ligten him of his birdene, helpen him at his nede; god giueð ðer-fore mede: we sulen hauen heuenriche, gef we bitwixen MS ben twixen. us ben briche: ðus is ure louerdes lage, luuelike to fillen, her-of haue we mikel ned, ðat we ðar-wið ne dillen.

1.6

1.6.1
Fox
1.6.2
Natura wulpis. A wilde der is ðat is ful of fele wiles, fox is hire to name, for hire queðsipe; husebondes hire haten, for hire harm dedes: ðe coc and te capun ge feccheð ofte in ðe tun, and te gandre and te gos, bi ðe necke and bi ðe nos, haleð is to hire hole; for-ði man hire hatieð, hatien and hulen boðe men and fules. Listneð nu a wunder, ðat tis der doð for hunger: goð o felde to a furg, and falleð ðar-inne, In eried lond er in erðchine. forto bilirten fugeles; Ne stereð ge nogt of ðe stede a god stund deies, oc dareð so ge ded were, Ne drageð ge non onde: ðe rauen is swiðe redi, weneð ðat ge rotieð, and oðre fules hire fallen bi For to winnen fode, derflike wiðuten dred; he wenen ðat ge ded beð, he wullen ? billen or pullen . on ðis foxes fel; and ge it wel feleð, ligtlike ge lepeð up and letteð hem sone, gelt hem here billing raðe wið illing, tetoggeð and tetireð hem mid hire teð sarpe, Fret hire fille, and goð ðan ðer ge wille.
1.6.3
Significacio. Twifold forbisne in ðis der to frame we mugen finden her, warsipe and wisedom wið deuel and wið iuel man; ðe deuel dereð dernelike, he lat he ne wile us nogt biswike, he lat he ne wile us ðon non loð, and bringeð us in a sinne and ter he us sloð, he bit us don ure bukes wille, eten and drinken wið unskil, and in ure skemting he doð raðe a foxing, he billeð one ðe foxes fel wo so telleð idel spel, and he tireð on his ket wo so him wið sinne fet, and deuel geld swilk billing wið same and wið sending, and for his sinfule werk ledeð man to helle merk.
1.6.4
Significacio. Ðe deuel is tus ðe [fox] ilik mið iuele breides and wið swik; and man al so ðe foxes name arn wurði to hauen same; for wo so seieð oðer god, and ðenkeð iuel on his mod, fox he is and fend iwis, ðe boc ne legeð nogt of ðis; So was herodes fox and flerd, ðo crist kam in-to ðis middel-erd, he seide he wulde him leuen on, and ðogte he wulde him fordon.

1.7

1.7.1
Spider
1.7.2
Natura aranéé . MS iranéé . Seftes sop ure seppande, sene is on werlde, leiðe and lodlike, MS loldike. ðus we it leuen, manikines ðing alle manne to wissing. ðe spinnere on hire swid ge weveð, festeð atte hus rof, hire fodredes o rof er on ouese, so hire is on elde; werpeð ðus hire web, and weueð on hire wise. ðanne ge it haueð al idigt. ðeðen ge driueð, hitt hire in hire hole, oc ai ge it biholdeð til ðat ðer fleges faren and fallen ðer-inne, wiðeren in ðat web, and wilen ut wenden; ðanne renneð ge rapelike, for ge is ai redi, nimeð anon to ðe net and nimeð hem ðere, bitterlike ge hem bit and here bane wurðeð, drepeð and drinkeð here blod, doð ge hire non oðer god, bute fret hire fille, and dareð siðen stille.
1.7.3
Significacio. Ðif wirm bitokneð ðe man ðat oðer biswikeð on stede er on stalle, stille er lude, in mot er in market, er oni oðer wise, he him bit ðan he him bale felleð, and he drinkeð his blod wanne he him dreueð, and ðo freteð hem ? him. al, ðan he him iuel werkeð.

1.8

1.8.1
THE WHALE.
1.8.2
Natura cetegrandie. Cethegrande is a fis ðe moste ðat in water is; ðat tu wuldes seien get, gef ðu it soge wan it flet, ðat it were á neilond ðat sete one ðe se sond. ðis fis ðat is vnride, ðanne him hungreð he gapeð wide, vt of his ðrote it smit an onde, ðe swetteste ðing ðat is o londe; ðer-fore oðre fisses to him dragen, wan he it felen he aren fagen, he cumen and houen in his muð, of his swike he arn uncuð; ðis cete ðanne hise chaueles lukeð, ðise fisses alle in sukeð, ðe smale he wile ðus biswiken, ðe grete maig he nogt bigripen. ðis fis wuneð wið ðe se grund, and liueð ðer eure heil and sund, til it cumeð ðe time ðat storm stireð al ðe se, ðanne sumer and winter winnen; ne mai it wunen ðer-inne, So droui is te sees grund, ne mai he wunen ðer ðat stund, oe stireð up and houeð stille; wiles ðar ? ðat. weder is so ille, ðe sipes ðat arn on se fordriuen, loð hem is ded, and lef to liuen, biloken hem and sen ðis fis, an eilond he wenen it is, ðer-of he aren swiðe fagen, and mid here migt ðar-to he dragen, sipes on festen, and alle up gangen; Of ston mid stel in ðe tunder wel to brennen one ðis wunder, warmen hem wel and heten and drinken; ðe fir he feleð and doð hem sinken, for sone he diueð dun to grunde, he drepeð hem alle wið-uten wunde.