Book 1

At some distance from Marathon is Brauron, where, they say that Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, landed carrying the statue [agalma] of Artemis when she fled from Tauroi; leaving the statue [agalma] there she came to Athens also and afterwards to Argos. There is indeed an old wooden image of Artemis here, but who in my opinion have the one taken from the barbarians I will set forth in another place.
About sixty stadium-lengths from Marathon as you go along the road by the sea to Oropos stands Rhamnous. The houses [oikēseis] for human habitation are on the coast, but a little way inland is a sacred space [hieron] of Nemesis, who of all the gods [theoi] is the most inexorable toward humans who-commit-outrage [hubristai]. It is thought that the wrath [mēnīma] of this goddess [(he) theos] countered the barbarians [= Persians] who landed at Marathon. Scornfully thinking that nothing stood in the way of their capturing Athens, they were bringing a piece of Parian marble for the making [poiēsis] of a trophy [tropaion], as if their task were already finished.
Of this marble Pheidias made a statue [agalma] of Nemesis, and on the head of the goddess [theos (feminine) ] is a garland [stephanos] picturing deer and small statues [agalmata] of Nike. In her left hand she holds an apple branch, in her right hand a cup on which are crafted the figures of Aethiopians. As to the Aethiopians, I could hazard no guess myself, nor could I accept the statement of those who are convinced that the Aethiopians have been carved upon the cup because of the river Okeanos. For the Aethiopians, they say, dwell near it, and Okeanos is the father of Nemesis.
It is not the river Okeanos, but the farthest part of the sea navigated by man, near which dwell the Iberians and the Celts, and Okeanos surrounds the island of Britain. But of the Aethiopians beyond Syene, those who live farthest in the direction of the Red Sea are the Ichthyophagoi (Fish-eaters), and the gulf round which they live is called after them. The most righteous of them inhabit the city Meroe and what is called the Aethiopian plain. These are they who show the Table of the Sun, and they have neither sea nor river except the Nile.
There are other Aethiopians who are neighbors of the Mauroi and extend as far as the Nasamones. For the Nasamones, whom Herodotus calls the Atlantes, and those who profess to know the measurements of the earth, named the Lixitai, are the Libyans who live the farthest close to Mount Atlas, and they do not till the ground at all, but live on wild vines. But neither these Aethiopians nor yet the Nasamones have any river. For the water near Atlas, which provides a beginning to three streams, does not make any of the streams a river, as the sand swallows it all up at once. So the Aethiopians dwell near no river Okeanos.
The water from Atlas is muddy, and near the source were crocodiles of not less than two cubits, which when the men approached dashed down into the spring. The thought has occurred to many that it is the reappearance of this water out of the sand which gives the Nile to Egypt. Mount Atlas is so high that its peaks are said to touch the sky [ouranos], but is inaccessible because of the water and the presence everywhere of trees. Its region indeed near the Nasamones is known, but we know of nobody yet who has sailed along the parts facing the sea. I must now resume.
Neither this nor any other ancient statue [agalma] of Nemesis has wings, for not even the holiest [hagiōtata] wooden-images [xoana] of the people of Smyrna have them, but those who came later, wishfully thinking that the goddess [theos (feminine)] appears-in-epiphanies [epi-phainesthai] mostly as a consequence of passionate-love [erân], make [poieîn] wings for Nemesis as they do for Eros [‘passionate-love’ personified] . I will now go go through what has been artistically-worked [ergazesthai] into the pedestal of the statue [agalma], having made such preliminary remarks as I have made for the sake of clarity. The Greeks [Hellēnes] say that Nemesis was the mother of Helen, while Leda breast-fed her and raised [trephein] her. And, along these same lines, they as well as everyone else say that the father of Helen is not Tyndareus but Zeus.
Having heard these things Pheidias has represented Helen as being led to Nemesis by Leda, and he has represented Tyndareus and his children with a man Hippeus by name standing by with a horse. There are Agamemnon and Menelaos and Pyrrhos, the son of Achilles and first husband of Hermione, the daughter of Helen. Orestes was passed over because of his crime against his mother, yet Hermione stayed by his side in everything and bore him a child. Next upon the pedestal is one called Epochus and another youth; the only thing I heard about them was that they were brothers of Oinoe, from whom the deme [dēmos] has its name.
It was intolerable, the Athenians thought, that they had been insulted [peri-hubrizesthai] this way, and on their way back they made an alliance with the Argives, the immemorial enemies of the Spartans [Lacedaemonians]. Afterwards, when a battle was imminent at Tanagra, the Athenians opposing the Boeotians and Spartans [Lacedaemonians], the Argives reinforced the Athenians. For a time the Argives had the better, but night came on and took from them the assurance of their victory, and on the next day the Spartans [Lacedaemonians] had the better, as the Thessalians betrayed the Athenians.
It occurred to me to account for [katalegein] the following men also. First, there is Apollodoros, commander of the mercenaries, who was an Athenian dispatched by Arsites, satrap of Phrygia-by-the-Hellespont, and who saved their city for the Perinthians when Philip had invaded their territory with an army. He, then, is buried here, and also Euboulos the son of Spintharos, along with men who though brave were not attended by good fortune; some attacked Lakhares when he was tyrant, others planned the capture of the Peiraieus when in the hands of a Macedonian garrison, but before the deed could be accomplished were betrayed by their accomplices and put to death.
Here also lie those who fell near Corinth. The god [theos] showed most distinctly here and again at Leuktra that those whom the Greeks [Hellēnes] call brave are as nothing if Good Fortune be not with them, seeing that the Spartans [Lacedaemonians], who had on this occasion overcome Corinthians and Athenians, and furthermore Argives and Boeotians, were afterwards at Leuktra so utterly defeated by the Boeotians alone. After those who were killed in Corinth, we come across elegiac verses declaring that one and the same slab has been erected to those who died in Euboea and Chios, and to those who perished in the remote parts of the continent of Asia [Minor], or in Sicily.
The names of the generals are inscribed with the exception of Nikias, and among the private soldiers are included the Plataeans along with the Athenians. This is the reason why Nikias was passed over, and my account is identical with that of Philistos, who says that while Demosthenes made a truce for the others and excluded himself, attempting to commit suicide when taken prisoner, Nikias voluntarily submitted to the surrender. For this reason Nikias did not have his name inscribed on the slab, being condemned as a voluntary prisoner and an unworthy soldier.
On another slab are the names of those who fought in the region of Thrace and at Megara, and when Alcibiades persuaded the Arcadians in Mantineia and the people of Elis to revolt from the Spartans [Lacedaemonians], and of those who were victorious over the Syracusans before Demosthenes arrived in Sicily. Here were buried also those who fought in the sea-fights near the Hellespont, those who opposed the Macedonians at Khairōneia, those who were killed at Delium in the territory of Tanagra, the men whom Leosthenes led into Thessaly, those who sailed with Kimon to Cyprus, and of those who with Olympiodoros expelled the garrison not more than thirteen men.
The Athenians declare that when the Romans were waging a border war they sent a small force to help them, and later on five Attic warships assisted the Romans in a naval action against the Carthaginians. Accordingly, these men also have their tomb here. The achievements of Tolmides and his men, and the manner of their death, I have already set forth, and any who are interested may take note that they are buried along this road. Here lie too those who with Kimon achieved the great feat of winning a land and naval victory on one and the same day.
Here also are buried Konon and Timotheus, father and son, the second pair thus related to accomplish illustrious deeds, Miltiades and Kimon being the first; Zeno too, the son of Mnaseas and Khrysippos of Soloi, Nikias the son of Nikomedes, the best in painting [zōia graphein = zōigraphos] of all his contemporaries, Harmodios and Aristogeiton, who killed Hipparkhos, the son of Peisistratos; there are also two orators, Ephialtes, who was chiefly responsible for the abolition of the privileges of the Areiopagos, and Lycurgus [Lykourgos], the son of Lykophron;
Lycurgus [Lykourgos] provided for the state-treasury six thousand five hundred talents more than Pericles, the son of Xanthippos, collected, and he furnished for the procession of the goddess [theos (feminine)] golden figures of Nike and ornaments for a hundred girls [parthénoi]; for war he provided armor and projectiles, besides increasing the fleet to four hundred warships. As for buildings, he completed the theater that others had begun, while during his political life he built ship-sheds [neōs oikoi] at the dockyards in Peiraieus. He built also the gymnasium near what is called the Lyceum. Everything made of silver or gold became part of the plunder that Laoites made away with when he became tyrant, but the buildings remained to my time.